Green River Docs

Courtesy of Jerry Smith, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
Citizens were invited to collect rotenoned fish and bring them home for dinner. Courtesy of Jerry Smith, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
The rotenone in the Green River turned the water white. Courtesy of Jerry Smith, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
Poisoned fish near Big Sandy, Wyoming.  Courtesy of Jerry Smith, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
Green River near Big Piney.  Courtesy of Jerry Smith, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
Robert R. Miller, Jerry Smith, Jane Davis, and Jack Davis hold up Colorado Pikeminnow killed during the Green River rotenone project in 1962 near Little Hole, Utah.  Courtesy of Jerry Smith, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
The Bridge in Browns Park where the detoxification took place.  W.H. Kittams, National Park Service
A drip station on the Green River.  W.H. Kittams (National Park Service)
Setting up a rotenone drip station in the mouth of flaming gorge in 1962.  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center, FWS 4490
The Flaming Gorge Dam as it appeared in August, 1962.  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4440
A biologist examines a sentinel cage in the Green River. Carp were placed in cages like these. They were one of the best means available to determine the toxicity of the water from rotenone during the Green River Rehabilitation.  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4438
Rotenone drip lines like this were set up every ten miles along the Green River.  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4437
Agency personnel set up the detoxification station on the bridge in Browns Park, Colorado. Spreaders like the one in the middle of the picture were used to put potassium permanganate into the Green River.  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4434
Citizens like those pictured here were invited to gather the fish that had been killed by the rotenone in the Green River. Agency officials assured them the fish were safe to eat.  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4488
Flaming Gorge before the gates on the dam were closed.  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4485
Agency personnel set up a rotenone drip station on the Green River 25 miles north of the Utah State Line  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4435
Putting an airboat into the Green River to inspect the ongoing rotenone operation.  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4436
Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4489
Barry Nehring, a Colorado Division of Wildlife biologist, stands in front of the Gunnison Gorge, where whirling disease nearly wiped out a legendary rainbow trout fishery.  Photo by Anders Halverson
A Colorado Division of Wildlife crew electrofishing in the Gunnison Gorge. Some of the crew hold wands that send out a small electric shock, while others wait to net the stunned fish.  Photo by Anders Halverson
A Colorado Division of Wildlife crew electrofishing in the Gunnison Gorge in September 2006. Some of the crew hold wands that send out a small electric shock, while others wait to net the stunned fish. Photo by Anders Halverson
A Colorado Division of Wildlife crew electrofishing in the Gunnison Gorge. For bigger fish, a boat like this is used.  Photo by Anders Halverson
Colorado Division of Wildlife biologists examine a stunned rainbow in the Gunnison Gorge to gather population data and evidence of whirling disease. The department released a strain of rainbows resistant to whirling disease into the river the previous year, this was probably one of them.  Photo by Anders Halverson
Most infected rainbow trout die from whirling disease at a very young age. Those that do survive usually have deformed skeletons and skulls, bulging eyes, and black tails, like the ones pictured above.  Photo by Sascha L. Hallett
Under a microscope, a Myxobolus cerebralis triactinomyxon looks like a grappling hook. At this stage, the parasite is ready to attach to a fish. When it does, three coiled springs in the tip (the dark portion on the right) shoot into the skin, providing a secure entrance route for the germ capsule.  Photo by Vicki Blazer, U.S. Geological Survey
The whirling disease parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis, forms small spores like this one, photographed with an electron microscope. The spores remain viable for dozens of years in the mud, until they are eaten by a small worm known as Tubifex tubifex. When the worms die, they release another phase of the parasite known as a triactinomyxon (TAM) that is ready to infect another fish and complete the life cycle.  Photo by Ronald P. Hedrick
Fish culture has changed very little from the 19th century. First squeeze the eggs out of the ripe female by firmly sliding your fingers down the belly, then squeeze the milt out of the male. Swirl it around, and you're done. Provide them a safe place to develop and you'll have some nice fish in a year. This is John Riger at the Colorado Division of Wildlife's Crystal River Hatchery.  Photo by Anders Halverson
A closeup of Colorado Division of Wildlife's John Riger spawning rainbow trout.  Photo by Anders Halverson
A closeup of Colorado Division of Wildlife's John Riger spawning rainbow trout. Photo by Anders Halverson
Raceways at Colorado's Crystal River Hatchery.  Photo by Anders Halverson
Anders Halverson tries his hand, spawning rainbow trout at Colorado's Crystal River facility.
After they hatch, fish are raised in a rearing facility like this one. Here the manager of Colorado's Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit, Chris Hertrich, examines some young fish, some of which I helped to spawn. They reside in a retrofitted castoff trailer from the Department of Corrections.  Photo by Anders Halverson
Here they are, the fish that I helped to spawn, a few months later at the Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit.  Photo by Anders Halverson
Because they need abundant clear water, fish culture facilities tend to be located in beautiful places. This retrofitted trailer is part of Colorado's Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit, in Nathrop, Colorado.  Photo by Anders Halverson
The California Department of Fish and Game pioneered aerial fish planting in the years following World War II. In this photo, taken about 1950 in Bishop, CA, Dave Ward, Lee Talbot, Carrol Faist, and Jim McGregor prepare to load an WWII-surplus Beechcraft C-45 with fingerlings.
After years of stocking the lakes of the Sierra Nevada using pack animals, the California Department of Fish and Game began using airplanes in the 1940s. Many of the lakes previously had no fish.
A diagram of a typical aerial fish planting run, drawn by one of the pioneers: Carrol Faist.
A group at the University of Missouri is studying the effects of creatine--the same supplement used by athletes like home-run slugger Mark McGwire--on rainbow trout. Here the fish swims in a Plexiglas tube to measure its endurance. "Sportsmen would likely pay a premium for a fishing experience where the fish struck the bait harder and fought longer," said one of the researchers in a press release.  Photo by Steve Morse
Adam Konrad caught world-record, 43-pound rainbow trout in a Saskatchewan lake. His prize probably escaped from a nearby aquaculture facility and had been manipulated to contain an extra set of chromosomes—a feature that makes such fish grow much faster and larger than normal.  Photo courtesy of Otto and Adam Konrad
Loading a plane with fish for stocking in Lake Powell.  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4572
Stocking rainbow trout in Lake Powell  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #5066
Putting fingerling trout in a plane for stocking in Lake Powell  Photo by Rex Gary Schmidt. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center. #4577
Rainbow trout in nutritional chamber.  Photo by Nicholas Mariana. Courtesy of National Conservation Training Center #5297
Sometimes you have to ask what this enterprise is all about.  Photo by Anders Halverson
In the decades that followed World War II, reservoirs were built all over the country. Visiting them to fish for rainbow trout became one of America's favorite pasttimes. This picture was taken in 1972.  National Archives ARC Identifier 542647 / Local Identifier 412-DA-154

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